Download Magnanimous Dukes and Rising States: The Unification of the by Robert Stein PDF

By Robert Stein

within the overdue fourteenth and the 15th centuries, the Dukes of Valois-Burgundy created a composite monarchy within the Netherlands, a space that have been ruled for hundreds of years through a number of neighborhood dynasties. during this method they laid the basis for the trendy states of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. the increase of the home of Burgundy will be learn because the good fortune tale of a dynasty that during little over a century controlled to gather an excellent quantity of
principalities, therefore making a new kingdom. The Burgundian takeover, in spite of the fact that, led to a modernization of management, jurisdiction, and funds. the method of unification and the nature of the union are the crucial themes of Magnanimous Dukes and emerging States. Robert Stein mirrors continuity and
modernisation in Burgundian occasions with the financial disaster of the previous dynasties and the decline of feudal executive. The robust cities performed an enormous heritage function; it used to be in basic terms with their aid unification of the Netherlands was once attainable, yet this help was once now not unselfish. This examine is ready the improvement of strength family members and associations within the box of anxiety among ruler and topic, among centralisation and particularism.

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Download Feeding France: New Sciences of Food, 1760–1815 (Cambridge by E. C. Spary PDF

By E. C. Spary

Feeding France is the 1st finished learn of the French nutrition within the a long time surrounding the French Revolution of 1789. although the background of gastronomy and the eating place were explored through students, few are acutely aware that France used to be additionally one of many first countries to provide commercial meals. during this time of political and social upheaval, chemists controlled to be triumphant either as public meals specialists and as commercial meals brands. This ebook explores the intersection among wisdom, perform and trade which made this new nutrients services attainable, and the institutional and experimental tradition which housed it. starting from the exigencies of outdated Regime bread-making to the commercial showcasing of gelatine manufacture, Emma Spary rewrites the historical past of the French dating with foodstuff to teach that industrialisation and patrimonialism have been in detail intertwined.

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Download Guerrilla Aesthetics: Art, Memory, and the West German Urban by Kimberly Mair PDF

By Kimberly Mair

The violent operations played within the Nineteen Seventies via West German city guerrillas – resembling the purple military Faction (RAF) – have been so bright and incomprehensible that it looked to be extra pressing to provide spectacle than to be politically winning. In Guerrilla Aesthetics, Kimberly Mair demanding situations the idea that those guerrillas sought to achieve particular political objectives. as a substitute, she tracks the guerrilla warring parties’ plunge into an avant-garde-inspired negativity that confounded rationality and provoked the state.

Focusing at the crimson Decade of 1967 to 1977, which was once characterised not just by means of terrorism and police brutality but in addition via counterculture aesthetics, Mair attracts from files, gray literatures, pop culture, paintings, and memorial and curatorial practices to discover the sensorial points of guerrilla communications played by means of the RAF, in addition to the second of June flow and the Socialist sufferers' Collective. Turning to cultural and creative responses to the last decade and its legacy of uncooked public emotions, Mair additionally examines works via Eleanor Antin, Erin Cosgrove, Christoph Draeger, Bruce LaBruce, Gerhard Richter, and others.

Reconsidering an enigmatic interval within the historical past of terrorism, Guerrilla Aesthetics innovatively engages with the inherent connections among violence, functionality, the senses, and memory.

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Download Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path by Michael Mitterauer,Gerald Chapple PDF

By Michael Mitterauer,Gerald Chapple

Why did capitalism and colonialism come up in Europe and never somewhere else? Why have been parliamentarian and democratic varieties of govt based there? What elements ended in Europe’s precise place in shaping the realm? completely researched and persuasively argued, Why Europe? tackles those vintage questions with illuminating results.

Michael Mitterauer lines the roots of Europe’s singularity to the medieval period, particularly to advancements in agriculture. whereas so much historians have positioned the start of Europe’s detailed course within the upward thrust of country energy within the smooth period, Mitterauer establishes its origins in rye and oats. those new plants performed a decisive function in remaking the eu family members, he contends, spurring the increase of individualism and softening the restrictions of patriarchy. Mitterauer reaches those conclusions by way of evaluating Europe with different cultures, specially China and the Islamic international, whereas surveying crucial features of ecu society as they took form from the decline of the Roman empire to the discovery of the printing press. alongside the best way, Why Europe? deals up a blinding sequence of novel hypotheses to provide an explanation for the original evolution of ecu culture.

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Download Jewish Ludmir: The History and Tragedy of the Jewish by Volodymyr Muzychenko,Antony Polonsky,Marta Daria Olynyk PDF

By Volodymyr Muzychenko,Antony Polonsky,Marta Daria Olynyk

This quantity is a quick historical past of the Jewish group of Volodymyr-Volynsky, going again to its first old mentions. It explores Jewish payment within the urban, the kahal, and the function of the group within the Va’ad Arba Aratsot, and profiles numerous very important old figures, together with Shelomoh of Karlin and Khane-Rokhl Werbermacher (the Maiden of Ludmir). It additionally considers the city’s synagogues and Jewish cemetery, and explores the twentieth-century heritage of the group, specially through the Holocaust. Drawing on survivor eyewitness tales, the writer will pay tribute to the town’s Righteous one of the international locations and describes efforts to maintain the reminiscence of its Jewish neighborhood, together with the construction of the Piatydni memorial, and lists popular Jews born in Volodymyr-Volynsky and natives of town residing out of the country. This publication may be of curiosity to historians of the Jewish groups and the Holocaust in Ukraine, in addition to to the overall reader.

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Download A Guerra Secreta de Salazar em África (Portuguese Edition) by JOSE DUARTE JESUS PDF

By JOSE DUARTE JESUS

Em 1963, começou a operar em Portugal uma agência de imprensa chamada Aginter Press. O seu director period Yves Guillou, que usava, entre outros, o nome Yves Guérin-Sérac. O seu número dois chamava-se Robert Leroy. Veio a descobrir-se mais tarde - particularmente depois do 25 de Abril de 1974 -, através de documentação encontrada nos seus arquivos, que a agência se tratava, na realidade, de uma cobertura para um conjunto de acções secretas, algumas a realizar em Portugal e outras noutros países europeus, mas especialmente em África e mais tarde na América Latina. Essas operações secretas ou de cobertura tinham todas as características da guerra subversiva, no âmbito duma rede terrorista internacional, fascizante e de cruzada anticomunista.

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Download Czech Republic in Perspective - Orientation Guide and by U.S. Government,U.S. Military,Department of Defense PDF

By U.S. Government,U.S. Military,Department of Defense

those designated publications produced through the dep. of safeguard offer complete information regarding all facets of existence within the Czech Republic, with a distinct emphasis on geography, historical past, the financial system, society, protection and armed forces concerns, faith, traditions, city and rural existence, ethnic teams, crime, the surroundings, govt, vacation trips, gender concerns and masses more.

CHAPTER 1: GEOGRAPHY * advent * Topographical positive factors * Krusne Hory (Ore Mountains) * Luzicke Hory (Elbe Sandstone quarter) * Sudety Mountain Chain * Sumava Mountains * Ceskomoravska Vysocina (Bohemian-Moravian Highlands) * Outer Western Carpathians (Beskids) * our bodies of Water * Vltava River * Elbe River (Labe River) * Morava River * Oder (Odra) * weather * significant towns * Prague (Praha) * Brno * Ostrava * Plzen (Pilsen) * Karlovy fluctuate (Carlsbad) * Environmental matters * ordinary risks * bankruptcy 2: background * Early heritage * Holy Roman Empire * Bohemia's Golden Age * The Hussite Wars * The Habsburg Ascension * Reformation and Counter-Reformation * The Thirty Years' battle and Absolute Rule * The Enlightened Despot, Industrialization, and the top of Empire * The Czech Nationalist circulate * Roots of Ethnic Strife * finish of Empire, beginning of a country * the 1st Republic * The Sudeten Germans * The Munich contract * loss of life of a country * Nazi profession, 1939-1945 * Reconstruction * Communist Coup * lower than Communism * Adjusting to Communist Rule * Reform flow * Prague Spring of 1968 * turning out to be Discontent * Velvet Revolution * Velvet Divorce * relocating ahead * bankruptcy 2 evaluate * bankruptcy three: financial system * advent * Agriculture * * Tourism and repair Sectors * strength and ordinary assets * alternate * Banking and Finance * lifestyle * Employment traits * Public vs. inner most quarter * destiny Outlook * bankruptcy four: SOCIETY * Ethnic teams and Languages * Roma * Languages * faith * food * conventional gown * Gender concerns * Arts and Letters * song * Literature * Theater * movie * popular culture * structure * visible Arts * people Traditions * activities and activity * nationwide activities * game * bankruptcy five: safety * creation * army * Police * overseas relatives * The Visegrad staff * Germany and Austria * U.S.-Czech family * fresh family * concerns Affecting balance * Water and foodstuff safety * bankruptcy 1: PROFILE * creation * Geography * zone and weather * Mountains * our bodies of Water * significant towns * background * Early Slavic international locations * Holy Roman Empire * spiritual Strife * Nationalism * the 1st Republic * international warfare II * Communist Takeover * Communist Reforms * Velvet Revolution and Velvet Divorce * govt * government department * Legislative department * Judicial department * neighborhood management * There are 14 areas (kraje) within the Czech Republic, which shape a degree of management among cities and native councils and the nationwide govt * Media * Print Media * Broadcast Media * easy monetary constitution * major Industries * foreign money and exchange * Ethnic teams and Languages * different Minorities * Roma * bankruptcy 2: faith * creation * faith in Czech background * Early Christianity * Jan Hus * The Habsburgs and the Counter-Reformation * faith and Nationalism * faith below Communism * significant Religions * Roman Catholicism * Protestantism * Judaism * effect of faith on everyday life * faith and govt * non secular vacation trips * Christmas * Easter * constructions of Worship * habit in locations of Worship * bankruptcy three: TRADITIONS * creation * Values and features * Values * Codes of Politeness * verbal exchange types * Greetings and well mannered Expressions * female and male Interactions * Hospitality and Gift-Giving * unique events * consuming behavior * The ingesting tradition * Pubs * gown Codes * Nonreligious Celebrations * festivals and gala's * nationwide vacation trips * Dos and Don'ts * bankruptcy four: city LIFE

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Download Shipping, Trade and Crusade in the Medieval Mediterranean: by Ruthy Gertwagen,Ruthy, Dr Gertwagen,Elizabeth, Professor PDF

By Ruthy Gertwagen,Ruthy, Dr Gertwagen,Elizabeth, Professor Jeffreys

The state-of-the-art papers during this assortment replicate the huge components to which John Pryor has made major contributions during his scholarly profession. they're written through a few of the world's such a lot exclusive practitioners within the fields of Crusading heritage and the maritime background of the medieval Mediterranean. His colleagues, scholars and associates speak about questions together with send development within the fourth and 15th centuries, navigation and harbourage within the jap Mediterranean, alternate in Fatimid Egypt and alongside the Iberian Peninsula, army and social matters bobbing up one of the crusaders in the course of box campaigns, and wider features of medieval battle. All people with an curiosity in any of those matters, no matter if scholars or experts, might want to seek advice this book.

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Download Homosexualität im Nationalsozialismus: Der Paragraph 175 by Raymond Alain Twiesselmann PDF

By Raymond Alain Twiesselmann

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2005 im Fachbereich Geschichte Europa - Deutschland - Nationalsozialismus, II. Weltkrieg, observe: 2,0, Universität zu Köln (Historisches Seminar), Veranstaltung: Die Universität zu Köln im Nationalsozialismus, 18 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, summary: Die vorliegende Arbeit zeigt, dass der nationalsozialistische Ideologie kein einheitliches Paradigma im Umgang mit Homosexualität zu Grunde lag – weder in der Medizin noch im Strafrecht. Ziel battle es, den Männerbund als Ursprung und Fundament der nationalsozialistischen Bewegung vor Homosexualität zu schützen. Dennoch wurde gerade nach innerhalb der Nationalsozialistischen Bewegung Homosexualität bis zur Liquidierung Röhms toleriert. Erst nach dem Mord an Röhm fand eine intensivere, wenn nicht minder uneinheitliche Auseinandersetzung statt. Neben dem Männerbund galt es die sozialutopische NS-Ideologie aufrechtzuerhalten und die Reproduktion sicherzustellen. Diese beiden Säulen, die NS-Ideologie und die Reproduktion galt es gegenüber Homosexualität zu schützen. Das Strafrecht wurde dazu instrumentalisiert und modifiziert. Es wurde verschärft und der Straftatbestand der Homosexualität, der Unzucht, immer weiter gefasst.
Anders als es bei der Verfolgtengruppe der Juden, Sinti und Roma, der politisch Oppositionellen oder religiösen Gruppen möglich struggle, waren Homosexuelle nicht einwandfrei identifizierbar. Nur durch eine direkte Überführung während des Liebesaktes oder durch Denunziationen Dritter conflict dies möglich. Die geschlechtsspezifische Differenzierung innerhalb der Homosexualität, dass der homosexuelle Mann als bevölkerungspolitischer Blindgänger, die lesbische Frau hingegen als bevölkerungspolitisch nutzbar angesehen wurde, verhinderte zudem ein einheitliches Vorgehen. Gleichwohl gab es Verfolgungen, Misshandlungen und Demütigungen. Homosexuelle wurden erniedrigt und in der Auslebung ihrer Sexualität mehr als beschränkte. Dennoch gilt es festzuhalten, dass es keinen Homocaust, keine Vernichtungspolitik ähnlich der gegen Juden, gab. Nach Schätzungen wurden ungefähr 50.000 Homosexuelle verurteilt und 10-15.000 in ein Konzentrationslager verbracht3. Damit soll keineswegs eine Relativierung vorgenommen werden. In der Bundesrepublik struggle Homosexualität weiterhin ein Straftatbestand. So fanden sich die bereits im „Dritten Reich“ kriminalisierten in einer ähnlichen scenario. Erst in den siebziger Jahren des vergangenen Jahrhunderts, wurde die generelle Kriminalisierung der Homosexualität abgeschafft. Die Anerkennung Homosexueller Opfer des Nationalsozialismus wird bis heute von Homosexuellengruppen gefordert.

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